I believe that students can often be helped to gain confidence by breaking mathematical concepts down into simple steps. Where possible I link concepts to the real-world, as well as use puzzles in order to increase engagement levels. Students are more open in a 1-to-1 session and can't use some of the common avoidance tactics that occur in classrooms, so any issues can be readily identified.
Although flexible in my approach, I tend to cover the current topic being seen at school. This allows me to both reinforce key concepts, help clear up any misconceptions students might have, as well as extend current learning (typically using problem solving past exam questions). Within sessions, I take time to fully fill any gaps in core mathematical knowledge that become apparent. I have developed an extensive library of hyper-linked resources on my laptop enabling me to cover any topic at short notice.
Homework is a key part of tutoring for me. I use homework partly to consolidate the current topic being studied. However, I also use it as an opportunity to revise topics seen in previous sessions with me. By seeing a topics repeatedly over a number of weeks, students transfer this knowledge to their long term memories.